Earth Day affirmation: New satellite data confirms Earth is warming and possibly at a faster pace

Polar Bear on Arctic sea ice [Credit: AWeith - Wikimedia Commons]

Polar Bear on Arctic sea ice [Credit: AWeith – Wikimedia Commons]

Just in time for Earth Day, new satellite data corroborates scientists' findings that the Earth is warming at an alarming pace.

The new data, from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite, corroborates findings from the Goddard Institute of Space Studies Surface Temperature Analysis that showed 2015, 2016, and 2017 were the warmest years on record

The GISTEMP data, until now the most comprehensive kept by the U.S. government, uses land based thermometers, as well as many based on buoys and elsewhere at sea, to record temperatures and takes an average. AIRS uses 2,400 wavelengths of light to create 3D maps of temperature, humidity, and clouds throughout the atmosphere.

NASA AIRS Infrared satellite climate data, and El Nino cycles

NASA AIRS Infrared satellite climate data, and El Nino cycles

What's striking about the new study is how closely its recordings mirror those of GISTEMP over the years 2003 to 2017. One weakness in the GISTEMP data is that its findings from polar regions are sparse because it's difficult to keep instruments working there and there are fewer weather stations with those instruments.

The AIRS satellite data, however, is perfect for filling in those gaps. It shows that temperatures in the arctic rose faster than GISTEMP data has shown: 2.5 degrees Celsius (4.5 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade, since 2003. To avoid the most catastrophic damage from climate change, the Paris Climate Accord has set a target to keep average global temperatures to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. Cooler polar regions trapping water in ice sheets is key to that goal.

DON'T MISS: Catastrophic climate effects could hit by 2040, UN report says

The new data reinforces findings that the Arctic is warming faster than previously acknowledged and that understanding warming in the Arctic is important to what's happening in the rest of the world," UC Berkeley scientist Zeke Hausfather told The Washington Post.

Previous satellite temperature data relied on microwave readings, which didn't always agree with those from ground-based instruments, leaving climate science open to question.

The new data from AIRS gives scientists far greater confidence in the accuracy of existing global temperature measurements that show the Earth is warming.

“The estimates that we’re getting of the trends from the surface temperature network and ocean buoy network is matched to a ridiculous certainty by the trends that we’re getting from this remote sensing,” said study co-author Gavin Schmidt, a NASA scientist who leads the GISTEMP study, in a Scientific American report.

READ ALSO: Black Friday report shows climate change already very expensive in U.S.

Such correlation will make it more difficult for critics of climate change theory to thwart efforts to mitigate global warming. The AIRS satellite data relies on more up-to-date infrared readings. The data coming from satellites scanning the Earth puts to rest concerns about surface temperature readings coming from urban "heat islands," and polar readings coming only from coastal edges.

“This is a really good demonstration that, again, totally independent methodology ends up producing not just qualitatively the same results, but quantitatively the same results,” Schmidt said. "We know the planet is warming, but this is one more nail in the coffin to people who claim that the surface temperature estimates are uncertain or not to be trusted."

Of course, confirming that the world is warming faster than we thought is not good news. But confirming climate science gives us better tools to fight it.

Green Car Reports respectfully reminds its readers that the scientific validity of climate change is not a topic for debate in our comments. We ask that any comments by climate-change denialists be flagged for moderation. Thank you in advance for helping us keep our comments on topic, civil, respectful, and fact-based.

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Tesla’s 11th Death Anniversary — No Joke!

Cars

Published on April 21st, 2019 |
by Zachary Shahan

Tesla’s 11th Death Anniversary — No Joke!

April 21st, 2019 by Zachary Shahan

Okay, it’s a small joke, of course, since Tesla isn’t dead and certainly hasn’t been dead for 11 years! However, for those of you who thought this idea of an 11 year Tesla death anniversary was an April 1st joke, I assure you, it is not!

One of the frustrating things about following Tesla for many years is that misplaced attacks on Tesla, criticism of Tesla, and Tesla smears have not dissipated over time as Tesla has proven itself. In fact, despite so many “impossible” accomplishments and despite Tesla absolutely nailing its 2006 Secret Master Plan, criticisms and smears seem to have increased.

This can be super frustrating and annoying — the ignorance alone, not to mention the many implications. However, it can also be funny. I mean, seriously, critics have been forecasting Tesla’s imminent death for more than a decade! Where’s Mark Twain when you need him?

Writing Tesla flashback and Morning Monkey Business articles is one fun way to respond to the ongoing nonsense, but I realized there was something better I could do that could also have a much more positive and practical impact. I could organize a celebration, or even a global celebration, a network of celebrations!

Of course, for a network of celebrations, I need much more than myself. I need Tesla owners and fans around the world to chip in and share their love for Tesla in abundant, generous ways. As I indicated when I first announced this:

You could focus on test drives and showing off the supersplendulous Tesla Model 3, Model X, Model S, and Roadster.

You could host a house party, a pool party, or a Tesla camping party.

You could launch an epic road trip, organize a Tesla parade, plan a day of Tesla drag racing, or create a Tesla scavenger hunt.

You could have a frunkpuppy party, organize a day of pranks using Tesla Summon, or try to set a record for the highest number of dancing Model Xs.

There are many things you could do. The point is to have fun and spread the good news that Tesla, actually, is not dead and isn’t going to die anytime soon. To the contrary, Tesla is seeing its growth explode, Tesla has the most satisfied buyers on the auto market, Tesla offers a car that is better than a BMW 330i but has a total cost of ownership comparable to a Toyota Camry or Honda Accord, Tesla has broken countless sales records, and Tesla is essentially in a league of its own at the top of the auto market.

I spent some time trying to think of the best way to organize the organizers, and after considering pretty maps, a dedicated website, and more, I landed on a super simple and basic approach that I’ve seen work well time and time again with Tesla owners and fans — a Google Sheet (or two of them).

If you’d like to join an already planned event, take a look at what’s happening here and send an email or text message to the organizer.

If you’d like to organize an event, use our contact form and choose the option “I want to host or join a Tesla 11 Year Death Anniversary event!Just do it.

While the general plan is for all events to occur on May 19, since that’s the anniversary of the 11 year old “Tesla Death Watch,” we’re flexible. You can organize an event for another day if the 19th doesn’t work for you. Drop us the info and we’ll promote the heck out of it. Of course, you should also post about it on reddit, Twitter, Facebook, via your local Tesla owner group or EV club, and anywhere else you think you can attract attention.

The sooner you let us know of your involvement, the more we can market your event and help bring in more organizing support and participants. We are really going to blast the heck out of this network of celebrations — to an annoying degree — so we hope you don’t hold back your own desire to join the fun!

Thanks to a handful of initial leaders, we have the following events planned, but we’re just getting started:

  • Cincinnati, Ohio
  • Dallas, Texas
  • Krakow, Poland/Polska
  • Oxnard, California
  • Tampa, Florida
  • Thisted–Nykøbing M., Denmark
  • Twin Cities, MN

About the Author

Zachary Shahan Zach is tryin' to help society help itself (and other species). He spends most of his time here on CleanTechnica as its director and chief editor. He's also the president of Important Media and the director/founder of EV Obsession and Solar Love. Zach is recognized globally as an electric vehicle, solar energy, and energy storage expert. He has presented about cleantech at conferences in India, the UAE, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, the USA, and Canada.

Zach has long-term investments in TSLA, FSLR, SPWR, SEDG, & ABB — after years of covering solar and EVs, he simply has a lot of faith in these particular companies and feels like they are good cleantech companies to invest in. But he offers no professional investment advice and would rather not be responsible for you losing money, so don't jump to conclusions.

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Breaking — Tesla Model S & X Refresh Production Test Run Is About To Start

Cars

Published on April 21st, 2019 |
by Chanan Bos

Breaking — Tesla Model S & X Refresh Production Test Run Is About To Start

April 21st, 2019 by Chanan Bos

As has been mentioned in previous articles, it has been rumored Tesla is about to refresh the Model S & X. While at this point we don’t know exactly what this refresh will include, we did just find out one very specific detail. Tesla has just shipped hundreds of new drive units from Gigafactory 1 as part of “Project Raven,” a source close to the project just informed CleanTechnica.

Does this mean that the Model S and X are about to get 2170 battery cells? Not at all, since that too would have to come from the Gigafactory and there is no evidence to suggest that. (In fact, word is: these batteries are a Model 3 bottleneck.) The new drive units are similar to those used in the Model 3 since they utilize permanent magnets. This translates into a gain in efficiency which will increase the range of the Model S and X. In addition to that, the new drivetrain is likely to be rated for a million miles just as the one for the Model 3 is, since this is an important goal for Tesla.

Many questions remain, like whether these new drive units will allow the new versions of the Model S/X to accelerate faster than the previous ones or whether Tesla will start giving people the option to choose between more range and higher acceleration. The Model S and X lines are highly manual compared to the Model 3 General Assembly 3 line. This could potentially mean offering more options, even if that goes contrary to Tesla’s long-standing effort to simplify production. Some might wonder whether reducing Model S and X options could have been a stepping stone to make the Model S and X refresh easier.

What else will this refresh potentially include? The refresh is likely to allow for higher Supercharger speeds that were recently made available via an update for the Model 3.

It is rumored that the Model S and X will get an interior very similar to the Model 3 and Y which would be a very logical step to help Tesla meet its autonomy goals for the “Tesla Autonomous Network.” A horizontal screen will help if people want to watch movies while the car drives people to where they need to get or even before full autonomy during Supercharger recharges. Who knows when exactly you will be able to browse the Netflix Supercharger subcategory of series with episodes around 20 minutes — but the sooner, the better! Unfortunately, there’s no way for us to know at this point whether the drivetrain refresh will also include the new interior or whether that refresh will happen at a later date (presuming it happens at all).

Is Tesla going to introduce an exterior refresh? Personally, I don’t think so since the current design is just absolutely amazing and it would require massive changes within the Fremont factory body and paint shop with little clear benefit.

For now, all we know is that the first few hundred drive units have been shipped from the Gigafactory, and our source indicated the S/X refresh was “imminent.” Because it’s a few hundred and not a few thousand units, though, it’s possible that this is just a test run and that it might still be months until Tesla announces the refresh. It’s hard to know how long any testing processes might take. In the meantime, we will keep our eyes peeled for any further updates or leaks.


About the Author

Chanan Bos Chanan grew up in a multicultural, multi-lingual environment that often gives him a unique perspective on a variety of topics. He is always in thought about big picture topics like AI, quantum physics, philosophy, Universal Basic Income, climate change, sci-fi concepts like the singularity, misinformation, and the list goes on. Currently, he is studying creative media & technology but already has diplomas in environmental sciences as well as business & management. His goal is to discourage linear thinking, bias, and confirmation bias whilst encouraging out-of-the-box thinking and helping people understand exponential progress. Chanan is very worried about his future and the future of humanity. That is why he has a tremendous admiration for Elon Musk and his companies, foremost because of their missions, philosophy, and intent to help humanity and its future. He sees Tesla as one of the few companies that can help us save ourselves from climate change.

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Modest proposals will not make the audit process any more watertight



Modest proposals will not make the audit process any more watertight


Andrew Tyrie’s report recognises the value of more competition, but tinkering at the edges won’t make it happen





A Carillion sign at a construction site in central London






A thorough audit is seen as particularly important since the collapse of Carillion last year.
Photograph: Yui Mok/PA

Companies go out of business all the time, but big companies should be an exception. They have responsibilities to the communities where they operate. They employ lots of people and perform economically essential tasks. So they need to be resilient and have the capacity to adapt.

So what part does a financial audit play in keeping such a corporate ship afloat? It’s a question the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA), run by former Tory MP and Treasury select committee chair Andrew Tyrie, attempted to answer last week in a report that asked how greater competition might improve audit quality.

It is a question that ministers have asked Sir Donald Brydon, a City grandee who is currently chair of the London Stock Exchange, to address in his forthcoming review of the “quality and effectiveness of audit”. This followed an initial recommendation for a revamped audit watchdog by Sir John Kingman, a former Treasury official who is now chairman of Legal & General.

Clearly, after the collapse of Carillion last year, parliament sees a thorough annual audit of a firm’s financial accounts as important in keeping a business seaworthy.

Unfortunately, most auditors approach their work as if checking a piece of machinery, albeit one with more moving parts. Audits work like a health check by a private doctor who knows that their patient might well cover up symptoms of what will later become a life-threatening condition – either out of embarrassment or, more importantly, to limit the costs of treatment.

An executive may want to cover up mistakes or wrongdoing for the same reason. The “doctor” needs to ask some probing questions before declaring the patient fit.

The CMA has considered the topic in line with its remit, which focused on the structure of the audit market. It has demanded only limited reforms. One is that companies commission two audit firms to check their books if one of the firms they use is a member of the Big Four – KPMG, PwC, Deloitte or EY.

This move should, according to Tyrie, empower smaller firms of auditors to gain a bigger foothold in the market and therefore provide a greater challenge to the big four. He argues that with competition comes greater quality.

Tyrie also wants audit departments within the larger accountancy firms to adopt Chinese walls to prevent their work being used as a calling card for more lucrative consultancy contracts.

Timid is the best description of these proposals, because only a separate audit industry, cut free from tax and management consultancy work, can ever be truly independent. Beefing up smaller firms is something the government needs to be actively involved in facilitating, because expecting auditors to treat the idea of joint working with anything other than disdain is naive.

So the CMA’s efforts amount to little more than the kind of window-dressing the audit industry has managed to maintain ever since Arthur Andersen perished following the collapse of Enron in 2002.

From that point onwards, auditors have repeatedly told ministers that imposing too many rules will only lead to another accountancy firm dying under the weight of unjustified compensation claims (Arthur Andersen was cleared of wrongdoing by the US courts).

Should we expect any better from Brydon, given that his report will be from the perspective of shareholders and shareholder representatives, with only Alison Hopkinson, the chief operating officer of Oxfam, to represent the interests of wider society? Not really.

Only a more fundamental shake-up will prevent managements from sinking companies, like they did at Carillion. Business minister Greg Clark should take note.

The gold standard for policing

The price of gold has been going down in recent weeks and is currently at its lowest level since the turn of the year. And that means Asian families may be able to sleep a little easier this weekend.

Why? Because research presented to the annual conference of the Royal Economic Society says burglars believe there is a higher likelihood of finding gold – normally in the form of jewellery – in Asian homes, and increase their larcenous behaviour when the price of the precious metal is high.

Researchers Nils Braakmann, Arnaud Chevalier and Tanya Wilson used the link between gold and burglary rates to test whether criminals are economically rational. In 1968, the late Nobel prize-winning economist Gary Becker wrote that individuals would turn to crime only if the expected proceeds, once adjusted for the risk of getting caught, outweighed the returns from living within the law.

If Becker’s theory is correct, districts with a high proportion of Asian households should see an increase in the burglary rate when the gold price goes up, because that changes the supposed risk-reward equation for potential burglars.

And this was supported by the evidence from England and Wales. The researchers drilled down into neighbourhood-level crime data and found that an increase in the gold price by £100 an ounce led to a 1% increase in burglaries, with a greater share of Asian households affected. In neighbourhoods with the highest share of Asian households, the number almost tripled.

There were, of course, two sides to the original Becker thesis: expected returns and the risk of getting caught. When the gold price is rising, the police should step up visible patrols in districts with a high proportion of Asian households, because that would act as a deterrent to would-be burglars.





A Tesla showroom in Miami, Florida.


A Tesla showroom in Miami, Florida. Photograph: Joe Raedle/Getty Images

Fiat-Tesla deal leaves both of them under a cloud

The end of the age of the internal combustion engine looms – and unexpectedly soon too, as carbon limits and the prospect of outright bans put big carmakers on alert that they need to change rapidly.

The accelerating transition has caught out some manufacturers. According to analysis by Jato Dynamics, based on 2018 data, only Tesla and Smart – out of 50 major manufacturers – will currently avoid steep European commission penalties planned for carmakers whose vehicles emit more than an average 95g of carbon dioxide per kilometre.

The penalties come into force from 2021, but some of the most polluting carmakers selling in Europe are now fighting to avoid the fines. And rather than upgrading to cleaner technology, they are instead seizing on legal loopholes.

Under the EU rules, carmakers can pool emissions across brands. But they can also buddy up with other manufacturers to make “open pools”. Japan’s Toyota has teamed up with Mazda, which it part-owns, but Fiat Chrysler has paired with Tesla.

Fiat is understood to be paying hundreds of millions of euros to average its emissions alongside Tesla’s zero-emission cars, thus dodging hefty fines. Fiat insists it is committed to reducing emissions but is entitled to “optimise the options for compliance that the regulations offer”.

It is a grubby deal on both sides. Tesla founder Elon Musk proclaims that he wants to “accelerate the advent of sustainable transport”, and a ticking counter on Tesla’s website says its vehicles have so far saved 3.6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. Those green ambitions appear to have disappeared when faced with a pile of cash.

The compromises of putting a monetary price on pollution are often uneasy and sometimes necessary, but Fiat’s approach leaves a noxious taste: economically wasteful, unfair on competitors investing in greener factories, and against the spirit of environmental protection.

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Financial market ‘pause party’ makes Fed rate cut less likely

WASHINGTON/NEW YORK (Reuters) – Risk-taking has been the rage since the Federal Reserve quit hiking interest rates at the end of last year. U.S. stocks are back near record highs and investors are stockpiling the lowest-grade corporate bonds with only a smidgen of extra compensation for the added risk.

Traders work on the floor at the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) in New York, U.S., April 18, 2019. REUTERS/Brendan McDermid

That rebounding mood on Wall Street may be welcomed by a president that has been demanding the Fed cut rates after markets fell sharply last year, and complaining that even pausing at the current level is the wrong call.

But if anything the ‘pause party’ on Wall Street makes it even less likely that the U.S. central bank will cut rates. Recent positive news on retail sales and exports, which have eased concerns of a sharply slowing economy, makes the case for a rate cut even weaker.

Investors at least have gotten the message, and shifted from projecting a rate cut later this year to now putting the odds at only 50-50 that the Fed will move lower by early 2020.

Wall Street celebrates the Fed’s ‘pause here.jpg

The state of financial markets, say some analysts, is evidence the Fed’s rate increases last year were on point, allowing the economy to continue growing while keeping risks in check. A rate cut at this stage would only be courting problems.

“The argument for why they should keep the possibility of a rate hike on the table is because of financial stability,” Citi chief economist Catherine Mann said in remarks on Wednesday to a conference on financial stability at the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College.

After a decade of near zero interest rates, “moving toward a constellation of asset prices that embodies risks is critical for getting us to a more stable financial market,” she said, noting that both equity prices and low-grade bond yields show a market that remains too sanguine.

In their critiques of the Fed, U.S. President Donald Trump, White House chief economic adviser Larry Kudlow, and possible Fed nominee Stephen Moore have argued that lower rates would allow faster growth and be in line with Trump’s economic plans. They contend that, with the risk of inflation low, the central bank does not need to maintain ‘insurance’ against it by keeping rates where they are.

     Overlooked in that analysis are the financial stability concerns steadily integrated into Fed policymaking since the 2007 to 2009 financial crisis. Mann spoke at a conference named in honor of economist Hyman Minsky, who explored how financial excess can build during good times, and unwind in catastrophic fashion. The downturn a decade ago showed just how deeply that dynamic can scar the real economy.

     Financial stability isn’t a formal mandate for the Fed, which under congressional legislation is supposed to maintain the twin goals of maximum employment and stable prices. But since the crisis the central bank has concluded that keeping financial markets on an even keel is a necessary condition for achieving the other two aims.

    That doesn’t mean an end of volatility or a guarantee of profits, but rather that risks are properly priced and that the use of leverage – investments made with borrowed money – is kept within safe limits.

Keeping an eye on stock valuations here.jpg

     That’s a key reason why even policymakers focused on maintaining high levels of employment, like Boston Fed president Eric Rosengren, at times have taken on a hawkish tone in favor of rate increases. The worse outcome for workers, Rosengren and others have said, would be to let markets inflate too much, and crash again, even if that means risking a bit higher unemployment in the interim. 

Markets are currently “a little rich,” Rosengren said in recent remarks at Davidson College in North Carolina.

Though not enough to warrant a rate increase, he said, it does argue against a rate reduction. Overall, Fed officials including Chairman Jerome Powell say they feel financial risks are within a manageable range, something policymakers feel has been helped along by the rate increases to date.

The state of financial markets is “something that the Fed has to wrestle with,” Rosengren said. “It’s appropriate for interest rates to be paused right now.”

Corporate bond valuations look frothy here.jpg

Reporting by Howard Schneider and Trevor Hunnicut; Editing by Dan Burns and Andrea Ricci

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UPDATE 6-Bombs kill 138, wound hundreds in Easter attacks on Sri Lanka churches, hotels

COLOMBO (Reuters) – Easter Day bomb blasts at three Sri Lankan churches and four hotels killed 138 people and wounded more than 400, hospital and police officials said, following a lull in major attacks since the end of the civil war 10 years ago.

The explosions, some of which officials said were suicide bomb attacks, led to an immediate clampdown, with the government declaring a curfew and blocking access to most major social media and messaging sites.

It was unclear when the curfew would be lifted.

More than 50 people were killed in St. Sebastian’s gothic-style Catholic church in Katuwapitiya, north of Colombo, a police official told Reuters, with pictures showing bodies on the ground, blood on the pews and a destroyed roof.

Media reported 25 people were also killed in an attack on an evangelical church in Batticaloa in Eastern Province.

The three hotels hit were the Shangri-La Colombo, Kingsbury Hotel in Colombo and the Cinnamon Grand Colombo. It was unclear whether there were any casualties in the hotels.

The first six explosions were all reported within a short period in the morning just as church services were starting.

Nine foreigners were among the dead, the officials said.

Early in the afternoon, police reported there had been two more explosions. One was at a hotel near the national zoo in the Dehiwela area near Colombo.

A witness told local TV he saw some body parts, including a severed head, lying on the ground near the hotel.

The other explosion was in a house in Colombo, authorities said.

There were no immediate claims of responsibility for the attacks in a country which was at war for decades with Tamil separatists until 2009 during which bomb blasts in the capital were common.

Christian groups say they have faced increasing intimidation from some extremist Buddhist monks in recent years. And last year, there were clashes between the majority Sinhalese Buddhist community and minority Muslims, with some hardline Buddhist groups accusing Muslims of forcing people to convert to Islam.

Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe called a national security council meeting at his home for later in the day.

“I strongly condemn the cowardly attacks on our people today. I call upon all Sri Lankans during this tragic time to remain united and strong,” he said in a Tweet.

“Please avoid propagating unverified reports and speculation. The government is taking immediate steps to contain this situation.”

President Maithripala Sirisena said he had ordered the police special task force and military to investigate who was behind the attacks and their agenda.

The military had been deployed, according to a military spokesman, and security stepped up at Colombo’s international airport.

Relatives of a victim of the explosion at St. Anthony’s Shrine, Kochchikade church react at the police mortuary in Colombo, Sri Lanka April 21, 2019. REUTERS/Dinuka Liyanawatte

ATTACKS ON CHRISTIANS

One of the explosions was at St. Anthony’s Shrine, a Catholic Church in Kochcikade, Colombo, a tourist landmark.

St. Sebastian’s posted pictures of destruction inside the church on its Facebook page, showing blood on pews and the floor, and requested help from the public.

Last year, there were 86 verified incidents of discrimination, threats and violence against Christians, according to the National Christian Evangelical Alliance of Sri Lanka (NCEASL), which represents more than 200 churches and other Christian organizations.

This year, the NCEASL recorded 26 such incidents, including one in which Buddhist monks allegedly attempted to disrupt a Sunday worship service, with the last one reported on March 25.

Out of Sri Lanka’s total population of around 22 million, 70 percent are Buddhist, 12.6 percent Hindu, 9.7 percent Muslim and 7.6 percent Christian, according to the country’s 2012 census.

In its 2018 report on Sri Lanka’s human rights, the U.S. State Department noted that some Christian groups and churches reported they had been pressured to end worship meetings after authorities classified them as “unauthorized gatherings”.

The report also said Buddhist monks regularly tried to close down Christian and Muslim places of worship, citing unidentified sources.

Malcolm Cardinal Ranjith, the archbishop of Colombo, told local TV that the public should remain calm and asked authorities to bring those responsible for the attacks before the law. He also requested the public donate blood for the injured.

Education Minister Akila Viraj Kariyawasam announced that all schools would be closed on Monday and Tuesday.

Slideshow (26 Images)

The heads of major governments condemned the attacks. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said “there is no place for such barbarism in our region”. Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan said in a tweet that “this is an assault on all of humanity”.

Christians celebrate the resurrection of Jesus Christ on Easter Day after his death on the cross.

Edited by Martin Howell and Nick Macfie

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